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Three Affiliated Tribes - Timeline of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish, 1950-Present

900-1868 | 1870-1949 | 1950-Present

Timeline of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish, 1950-Present

1950–1953

United States is involved in the Korean Conflict. One hundred thirty four tribal members serve, three of whom are women. Two tribal members are killed in action and two become prisoners of war for three years.

1952

The Bureau of Indian Affairs establishes a national relocation program for all tribes and Indian families move to such cities as St. Louis, Chicago, Cleveland, and Los Angeles.

1953

U.S. House Concurrent Resolution 108 is passed and is the first of several acts calling for the termination of federal trust status over Indian land. The U.S. Indian Scout Cemetery is moved west of White Shield.

1951–1954

New communities of Lucky Mound, Twin Buttes, White Shield, and Mandaree are established. Tribal government and Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters are moved to New Town.

1955

Act passed transferring Indian Health Service from Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Public Health Service.

1962

Tribes become eligible for loans from the U.S. Housing and Urban Development Program and the Farmers Home Administration.

1964

Economic Opportunity Act provides a means for tribes to participate in and control their own programs for economic development. Tribal Museum is built by tribal, state, and federal funds and private donations. The American Indian Policy Review Commission is established. It is the first national study conducted on all programs for Indians by Indian people.

1965–73

Vietnam War—18 women and 258 Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish men serve. Four are killed in action.

1970

The Four Bears Complex is built. Facilities include the construction of a motor lodge and resort area. Northrop Corporation, an electronics plant, begins operations in New Town.

1971

Community Action Programs (CAP) start under the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO).

1972

Congress passes the Indian Education Act of 1972. Funded as a part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the law creates an Office of Indian Education, as well as a National Advisory Council on Indian Education. The act, designed to improve the quality of education for Indian students, provides funds to public schools.

City of New Town vs. United States, 8th Circuit Court of Appeals. The court decides the Homestead Act of June 1, 1910 did not alter the boundaries of the reservation, but merely opened up some reservation lands for homesteading. The court finds that the cities of New Town and Parshall are legally within the boundaries of the reservation.

1973

Fort Berthold Community College is established.

1974

Fort Berthold Community College is chartered.

1975

Congress passes the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, expanding tribal control over reservation programs and authorizing federal funds to build needed public school facilities on or near Indian reservations.

1977

TERO (Tribal Employment Rights Office) opened at Fort Berthold.

1978

Tribal administration building completed and occupied in August. KMHA Tribal Radio Station is incorporated.

1981

Three Tribes establishes Air Pollution Monitoring Program, one of the first tribal programs of its kind on an Indian reservation.

1985

Three Affiliated Tribes amends tribal constitution extending jurisdiction over all lands, including lands held in fee simple and over all persons, including non-Indians, within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Berthold Reservation.

1986

Garrison Unit Joint Tribal Advisory Committee (JTAC) is created by the Department of the Interior to examine and make recommendations on the effects of the Garrison Dam on the Fort Berthold and Standing Rock Indian Reservations.

Final report submitted in 1986. Cabazon Case. Tribes win the right to hold gaming on Indian reservations.

1987

Mandan Hidatsa and Arickara Times newspaper is established.

1988

National Indian Gaming Commission, a federal regulatory commission within the U.S. Department of Interior, is established.

1990

Mandaree Electronics, a for-profit corporation is changed to Mandaree Enterprises, and develops jobs through private and government contracts. Casey Family Program establishes and builds a program office on the Fort Berthold Reservation and constructs a day care center for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes. Construction begins on the Municipal Rural and Industrial Water Project and a Dialysis Center.

1991

Persian Gulf War begins. Six tribal members serve.

1992

Affiliated Tribes signs a gaming compact with the State of North Dakota. The Fort Berthold Community College constructs a new facility designed to serve as the main administration building.

Based upon recommendations of the Garrison Unit Joint Tribal Advisory Committee (JTAC), $149.2 million is awarded to the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes by the U.S. Congress.

1993

Four Bears Casino is built within the renovated Four Bears Motor Lodge.

1995

The graves at the Old Scouts Cemetery near White Shield are reburied from North to South to East and West. The United States Army Corps of Engineers, disregarding Sahnish burial traditions during the construction of the Garrison Dam, faced the graves in the wrong direction.

1997

Fort Berthold Community College expands with new classrooms, science labs, and additional parking space.

2000

Four Bears Casino and Lodge expands to include an Events Center.

2001

Four Bears Casino and Lodge constructs additional rooms onto the Lodge. A marina is planned for the Four Bears Recreation Complex. Thirty million is appropriated by Congress for the construction of a new bridge to replace the existing Four Bears Bridge.

2005

A new, $55 million Four Bears Bridge is constructed west of New Town, North Dakota. The bridge is decorated with medallions reflecting the heritage of the Three Affiliated Tribes—the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara—who inhabit the Fort Berthold Reservation. The bridge is named for two chiefs, one Mandan and one Hidatsa—both named Four Bears. The Four Bears Bridge was officially opened to the public on September 2, 2005, and the official opening ceremony and dedication were held on October 3, 2005.

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